Degree in Medicine at the University of Firenze, 1969; PhD in Medical Toxicology and Anaesthesiology at the University of Firenze. He was Full Professor of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, University of Firenze, 1986-2013. He was Director of the Medical Toxicology Clinical Unit, Careggi University Hospital, Firenze, 2002-2013.
His scientific activity mainly focused on excitatory neurotransmission and neurotoxicity.
He is a member of the American Society for Neurosciences, Italian Society for Neurosciences, European Society for Neurosciences, International Brain Research Organization, European College of Neuropsychopharmacology, Italian Study group on Brain Aging, European College of Neuropsychopharmacology.